Annotation in Java


Annotations provide data about a program that is
not part of the program itself. They have no direct effect on
the operation of the code they annotate.

Annotations have a number of uses, among them:

  • Information for the compiler — Annotations can be used by the compiler to
    detect errors or suppress warnings.

  • Compiler-time and deployment-time processing — Software tools can process annotation information
    to generate code, XML files, and so forth.

  • Runtime processing — Some annotations are available
    to be examined at runtime.

Annotations can be applied to a program’s declarations of classes, fields,
methods, and other program elements.

The annotation appears first, often
(by convention) on its own line, and may include elements with named or unnamed values:

   name = "Benjamin Franklin",
   date = "3/27/2003"
class MyClass() { }


@SuppressWarnings(value = "unchecked")
void myMethod() { }

If there is just one element named “value,” then the name may be omitted, as in:

void myMethod() { }

Also, if an annotation has no elements, the parentheses may be omitted, as in:

void mySuperMethod() { }


Many annotations replace what would otherwise have been comments in code.

Suppose that a software group has traditionally begun the body of every class with
comments providing important information:

public class Generation3List extends Generation2List {

   // Author: John Doe
   // Date: 3/17/2002
   // Current revision: 6
   // Last modified: 4/12/2004
   // By: Jane Doe
   // Reviewers: Alice, Bill, Cindy

   // class code goes here


To add this same metadata with an annotation, you must first define the annotation type.
The syntax for doing this is:

@interface ClassPreamble {
   String author();
   String date();
   int currentRevision() default 1;
   String lastModified() default "N/A";
   String lastModifiedBy() default "N/A";
   String[] reviewers();  // Note use of array

The annotation type definition looks somewhat like an interface definition where the keyword
interface is preceded by the @ character (@ = “AT” as in Annotation Type). Annotation
types are, in fact, a form of interface, which will be covered in a later
For the moment, you do not need to understand interfaces.

The body of the annotation definition above contains annotation type element declarations, which
look a lot like methods. Note that they may define optional default values.

Once the annotation type has been defined, you can use annotations of that type, with
the values filled in, like this:

@ClassPreamble (
   author = "John Doe",
   date = "3/17/2002",
   currentRevision = 6,
   lastModified = "4/12/2004",
   lastModifiedBy = "Jane Doe",
   reviewers = {"Alice", "Bob", "Cindy"} // Note array notation
public class Generation3List extends Generation2List {

// class code goes here


Note: To make the information in @ClassPreamble appear in Javadoc-generated
documentation, you must annotate the @ClassPreamble definition itself with the
@Documented annotation:

import java.lang.annotation.*; // import this to use @Documented

@interface ClassPreamble {

   // Annotation element definitions

Annotations Used by the Compiler

There are three annotation types that are predefined by the language specification
itself: @Deprecated,
@Override, and @SuppressWarnings.

Annotation Processing

The more advanced uses of annotations include writing an annotation processor
that can read a Java program and take actions based on its annotations. It might, for example, generate
auxiliary source code, relieving the programmer of having to create boilerplate code that always follows predictable patterns.
To facilitate this task, release 5.0 of the JDK includes an
annotation processing tool, called apt. In release 6 of the JDK, the functionality of
apt is a standard part of the Java compiler.

To make annotation information available at runtime, the annotation type itself must be annotated with
@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME), as follows:

import java.lang.annotation.*; 

@interface AnnotationForRuntime {

   // Elements that give information
   // for runtime processing
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